NotesDesigned at Doulton & Co, Burslem, England, c 1895. "Manly Beach" pattern. Rd.No. 182.008.
Made by Doulton & Co. for Holdsworth, Macpherson & Co, General and Saddler's Ironmongers, Glass and China, George St., Sydney
The Doulton pottery was established in 1815 in Lambeth, South London. First known as Jones, Watts and Doulton and then Doulton and Watts, the firm specialised in salt glazed stoneware sanitary, chemical and domestic articles. Managed by Henry Doulton (1820-1897), in 1854 the firm began to trade under the name Doulton and Co. At the 1862 London International Exhibition, it exhibited the usual range of wares and an important addition, a large decorative stoneware saltcellar. The exhibition was a turning point for Doulton and marked the beginning of the production of decorative stoneware known as 'Doulton Ware' which were to win the firm international recognition. From 1866 the pottery was closely associated with the Lambeth School of Art whose students, including George Tinworth, provided innovative models for, and decorated vases, sculptural ornaments and plaques; even large-scale fountains were made.
The success of Doulton's 'art wares' shown at the 1867 Paris International Exhibition encouraged Henry Doulton to establish an art department to design unique pieces for international exhibitions. In 1877 Henry Doulton entered into a partnership with Thomas Shadford Pinder, the proprietor of an earthenware pottery in Burslem, Staffordshire, and the merged firms traded under the name of Pinder, Bourne and Company. The partnership with Pinder dissolved in 1882, Doulton and Co now operated in two locations: Lambeth and Burslem. In 1879 an impressive selection of Lambeth objects was shipped to Sydney for display in Australia's first international exhibition.
Winning the company two first degrees of merit, these works were purchased by the new Technological, Industrial and Sanitary Museum, now known as the Powerhouse Museum. In 1882, the Garden Palace, which housed both the exhibition and the museum's first collection, was entirely destroyed by fire. A splendid replacement collection was provided by Doulton in 1883 which now forms part of the Museum's internationally renowned collection of Doulton ceramics.
Under the management of John Bailey and artistic guidance of John Slater, the new Burslem factory soon proved to be a great success and a new bone china department was constructed in 1884. A small range of floral painted wares was exhibited at the 1892 Paris Exhibition and was awarded the Grand Prix. A spectacular range of works was sent to the 1893 Chicago Exhibition in America securing Doulton seven of the highest awards, the most given to any ceramic firm. By 1890, a total of 345 people were employed at Burslem. George Tinworth was joined by Hannah, Arthur and Florence Barlow, Frank Butler, Eliza Simmance, Mark V. Marshall and others. These artists developed a wide range of decorating techniques including incised and applied relief and pbte-sur-pbte painting. These developments complemented distinctive wares created in Lambeth such as Faience, Impasto, Silicon and Marqueterie wares. Henry Doulton died in 1897, and in 1899 a limited company was formed. Two years later King Edward VII granted the firm the rare privilege of using the word 'Royal' on its products.
During the first half of the 20th century, the utilitarian wares and decorative stoneware continued to be produced at Lambeth, and the Burslem works were busy with the tableware series ware and later also with figurines. One of the most significant developments at Burslem was the rediscovery of the ancient techniques used by Chinese potters. Charles Noke, art director from 1914, had experimented since the late 1890s with transmutation glazes and was largely responsible for the success of rouge flambi, crystalline and titanium wares, and Sung and Chang series. Following the closure of the Lambeth works in 1956, Royal Doulton divided its interests into four major subsidiaries covering the areas of decorative porcelain ('fine china'), industrial porcelain, sanitary porcelain and vitrified pipes. Today, Royal Doulton is the word's leading supplier of premium ceramic tableware, giftware, collectables and crystal. Its brand portfolio includes Royal Doulton, Royal Albert, Minton and John Beswick.