Tajik womens paranja

Made by Tajik people in Turkestan, c.1900.

Robes with false sleeves like those on this woman’s paranja have a long tradition in Central Asia, and over time have been worn by both men and women. While this style of garment probably did not originally denote adherence to Islam, by the end of the nineteenth century paranjas were mandatory street wear for the urban Muslim women of Central Asia. Uzbek and Tajik women, from young girls to elderly matriarchs, always wore the paranja with a horsehair face veil called a chachvan when venturing ou...

Summary

Object No.

2003/176/2

Physical Description

Veiling garment (paranja), womens, embroidered cotton/ metallic ornaments/ buttons, made by Tajik woman in Russian Turkestan, c. 1900

The paranja is made of natural coloured cotton with fine blue pin-striping. At the back, false sleeves are joined around waist level and fall almost to the hem. On the front are slits for the arms. The front, hem, arm slits and 'cuffs' of the paranja are edged with zey braiding, which was woven in situ and then embroidered with yellow, black and red cross stitch. Rows of black, geometric embroidery and feather-like plant motifs, whose stitches go through all layers of the cloak, have been worked within the zeh bands. Additional ornament comes from plentiful small white buttons, multi coloured tassels and silver bells; four rows of toggle closures cross the front of the garment.

The paranja is completely lined with a number of different cottons which have been carefully pieced together. The more visible fabrics are white-on-red Russian printed cottons and two different twill-woven yellow and green striped cottons used as wide lining band to the hem and front edges .

Dimensions

Width

580 mm

Production

Notes

Robes with long vestigial sleeves, worn over the head and shoulders, have a long tradition in Central Asia. A garment with very narrow long decorated sleeves was amongst the finds in the 2500 year old grave site at Pazyryk in Western Siberia. Evidence of similar costumes can be found on some bas reliefs and sculptures at Persepolis, on the Oxus treasure and on terracotta figurines from Afrasiab (ancient Samarkand). As this style of garment predates the Arab invasion of the 8th century CE, it also clearly predates Islam in the region.

Early (19th century) paranjas were quite sober in appearance, being mostly made from blue or silvery-grey and finely-striped cotton fabric like this example. With the availability of new materials, paranja design became rather more adventurous and a fashionable woman might wear one made from bright ikat, velvet or brocade. The form however remained very much the same. Decoration also changed as tassels, buttons, metallic ornaments were lavished on the paranja to enhance the simple black braid and black embroidery of earlier times.

Unlike other items of women's dress, the paranja was not made at home but was commissioned from women who specialised in their production. It appears that the measurements were standardised. The black embroidery is hand done, and is worked through both outer cloth and lining. The zeh (or dziyak) edging is worked in place on the robe itself, and was an independent craft.

During the 1800s the Russians promoted the cultivation of cotton and mulberry trees and, until the Soviet regime was established in the 1920s, the production of silk and cotton fabrics was run as a cottage industry with a clear division of labour. Women were responsible for the rearing of the silkworms while men actually produced the silk fabrics. Women were also the embroiderers.

Made

Tajik people c.1900

History

Notes

Paranjas were worn by urban Tajik and Uzbek women in Russian Turkestan in conjunction with a face veil (chachvan) whenever they left the confines of their own home. The broad collar band rested on top of the head from where the cloak hung down in heavy folds to the ground, with the edges meeting at the front. Underneath the woman wore her regular dress of kurta and drawstring trousers, coat, cap and scarf. Although the paranja and veil were more a symbol of modesty and respectability than one of strict segregation, a good Muslim woman could not leave her home without wearing both articles of body cover.

After the Soviet revolution, women were encouraged to burn their parajas and chachvans as symbols of oppression. However, as abandoning veiling was viewed as radically immodest and a slight against Islam, some two thousand women were killed by their male relatives. Many women continued to wear the paranja and ultimately the authorities were unable to enforce the decree. At Krushchev's request, an anti-veil campaign was carried out by the Communist Youth League between 1955 and 1959.

Purchased by Christina Sumner from a woman vendor at the Urgut Sunday market during an overseas-on-duty visit to Central Asia in October 1999; subsequently sponsored for the Museum collection by the Oriental Rug Society of New South Wales.

Used

Tajik people c.1900

Source

Credit Line

Purchased for the collection by the Oriental Rug Society of New South Wales, 2003

Acquisition Date

29 October 2003

Cite this Object

Harvard

Tajik womens paranja 2018, Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, accessed 15 November 2018, <https://ma.as/319780>

Wikipedia

{{cite web |url=https://ma.as/319780 |title=Tajik womens paranja |author=Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences |access-date=15 November 2018 |publisher=Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, Australia}}

Incomplete

This object record is currently incomplete. Other information may exist in a non-digital form. The Museum continues to update and add new research to collection records.

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