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H9899 Telescope, 6 inch refracting transit telescope, brass / glass / wood, made by Troughton and Simms, London, 1875-1877, used at Sydney Observatory, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Click to enlarge.

6 inch refracting transit telescope made by Troughton and Simms

Made
"I gave the order for a new transit circle with 6-inch telescope to Mr. Simms, of Charlton, near London, requesting him to make certain alterations in the usual form, which experience has shown to be desirable. The instrument will combine all the most recent improvements and some that are used for the first time. I believe it will be one of the finest instruments extant." H. C. Russell, 1875.

There are two main types of telescopes. One uses a curved reflecting mirror to capture an image of the astral bodies the other uses a refracting lens to magnify the image.

This telescope, ordered from Troughton and Simms in 1875 arrived in Australia in 1877. It is one of the most significant of the museum's astronomical instruments because it was used to measure Sydney time and also do most of the observational work. Upon its arrival it replaced the old transit circle, which was thought to be deficient, and Russell used it to acquire accurate positions of stars for the trigonometrical survey of New South Wales.

One of the new innovations included in its design was the casting of circle from solid metal circles rather than in parts or leaving areas open. This was done to ensure the effects of temperature were spread more evenly across the circles to decrease distortion. Russell believed this telescope was the first to be cast in this way by Troughton and Simms.

This telescope also has a number of accessories made by Troughton and Simms which aided in the setting up and use of the instrument including: a level trier (H9957); testing equipment (H9976); lifting jack (H10005) and pivot apparatus (H10202) & (H10306). There is also a specially designed observation chair (H9901) which was probably locally made.

Another important job was its use as a support instrument in the mapping the stars project where it was used to acquire accurate positions of reference stars. The project was initiated in 1887 at a meeting of the International Congress of Astronomers in Paris. Henry Russell from The Sydney Observatory attended and was one of the many who accepted the proposal put forward by Dr. David Gill to map of the stars by photography. The importance placed on this project can be gauged by the fact that it dominated the activities of The Sydney Observatory into the 1960s.

References
Todd, David, P., Stars and Telescopes, Sampson Low, Marston, and Co., 1900
Haynes, Raymond, Haynes, Roslynn, Malin, David, McGee, Richard, Explorers of the Southern Sky, Cambridge University Press, 1996
De-Clerq, P.R., Nineteenth Century Instruments and their Makers; Rodopi, Amsterdam, 1985
Russell, H., C., "Report of Astronomer for 1874 & 1875', New South Wales Government Printer, 1876
Russell, H.C., 'Scientific Notes', in Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for the Year 1875, Volume. IX, Thomas Richards, Government Printer, Sydney, 1876

Geoff Barker, August, 2007

Summary

Object No.

H9899

Object Statement

Telescope, 6 inch refracting transit telescope, brass / glass / wood, made by Troughton and Simms, London, 1875-1877, used at Sydney Observatory, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Physical Description

(-1)6 inch refracting transit telescope with floor mounted support
(-2)Lenses and small components of telescope, in tubs.
(-3)Wood panelling and glass, packed together on pallet.
(-4)Lamp, used with telescope
Observatory stock number 31.

Dimensions

Height

4000 mm

Width

2500 mm

Depth

3000 mm

Production

Notes

The telescope was made by Troughton and Simms in London, England bewteen 1875 and 1877.

Cooke, Troughton & Simms
In 1782 John Troughton purchased Benjamin Cole's shop in Fleet Street, London enabling him to sell his own signed products. His instrument making business supported several dynasties of Troughton's before becoming Troughton and Simms and later still Cooke Troughton & Simms. This firm was one of the most well respected firms of instrument makers of the 1800s.

While his brother enjoyed some early success the business really expanded once Edward Troughton (1756-1835) took over the business in 1807. Edward and his brother John were both designers and manufacturers of instruments and the quality of their work won them contracts with the leading Government bodies of the time. These included The Royal Society, the Greenwich Royal observatory, the Board of Longitude, the Board of Ordnance and the East India Company.

One of the main factors in the success of the business was the use of a dividing engine which could speed up the laborious process of marking the small divisions of measurement necessary for scientific instruments. This machine was based on that designed by Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) which had won a prize from the British Board of Longitude in 1775. As a result of this the Board of Longitude was allowed to instruct Ramsden to allow up to ten other instrument makers to copy his machine. One of these was John Troughton and the new machines established both Ramsden's and Troughton's reputations. The dividing engine speeded up both accuracy and production and rather than spending 12 weeks, six days a week and eight hours a day graduating two meridian circles this machine enabled the same job to be completed in around 10 hours.

The workshop produced a broad range of instruments from large telescopes and theodolites through to smaller mathematical instruments. Before 1835 most of the optics appear to have been supplied by Dollond as Edward Troughton was reputed to be colour blind. It is also important to note that from the early years the precision engineering of castings and turnings of their instruments were mainly outsourced to Maudslay Field & Donkin or Ransome's & May.

One of Edward Troughton's apprentices William Simms was taken into partnership in 1826 and after Edward died in 1835 Simms became the manager of the establishment and company became Troughton & Simms. Under Simms the company continued to expand and produced instruments for Britain and her colonies as well as for markets in Europe and America. When William Simms died in 1860 the estate was worth around £80,000. The company was next managed by William Simms (junior) and his cousin James who carried the firm into the industrial age.

The 1860s they moved the company from Fleet St to two acres of land at Charlton on Woolwich Road and by1866 the factory employed 61 men and 20 boys. For the 1874 transit Troughton & Simms made only five transits and four portable azimuths but did refurbish some older telescopes lent for the occasion. Telescopes and transits of the period were often hybrids with the structure ordered from Grubb's or Troughton & Simms with lenses from Cooke.

However by 1887 the company was able to produce all the parts necessary for their instrument and the company employed nearly 200 people. James Simms died in 1915 and the company was turned into a limited liability company by his two sons William and James. Things however were not so easy for the two sons and in 1922 the business was brought out by their rival T. Cooke & Sons becoming Cooke, Troughton & Simms.

References
Todd, David, P., Stars and Telescopes, Sampson Low, Marston, and Co., 1900
Chaldecott, J., 'Printed Ephemera of Some Nineteenth Century Instrument Makers', in Blondel, C., Parot, F., Turner, A., Williams, M., (eds), Studies in the History of Scientific Instruments, Rogers Turner Books, London, 1989
King, H., C., The History of the Telescope, Dover Publications, New York, 1955
McConnell, A., Instrument Makers to the World; a History of Cooke, Troughton and Simms, William Sessions, York, England, 1992

History

Notes

Used at Sydney Observatory, Observatory Hill, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia to measure the transit time of stars.

Thw wooden panelling was added around piers at the time of Cooke as Govt Astronomer (1912-1927).

Source

Credit Line

Ex Sydney Observatory, 1983

Acquisition Date

3 June 1983

Cite this Object

Harvard

6 inch refracting transit telescope made by Troughton and Simms 2020, Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, accessed 26 November 2020, <https://ma.as/258823>

Wikipedia

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