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10084 Botanical models (2), Rumex patientia, Polygoneae (flower and grain of Dock), mixed media, Dr Auzoux, Paris, France, 1885. Click to enlarge.

Model of Dock flower

Made by Auzoux, Louis in Paris, France, 1885.

Two botanical models of flower and grain of dock. Square black wooden base. Metal pin supporting bright green stem, textured towards pedicel. gree calyx with 3 sepals and three, oval-shaped petals, with dark green veining, gathered inwards around 3 styles with featheres filaments protruding horizontally and 6 light brown stamen, with anthers gathered at centre. The ‘Sepale’ is hinged to allow removal of a petal.

Summary

Object No.

10084

Object Statement

Botanical models (2), Rumex patientia, Polygoneae (flower and grain of Dock), mixed media, Dr Auzoux, Paris, France, 1885

Physical Description

Two botanical models of flower and grain of dock. Square black wooden base. Metal pin supporting bright green stem, textured towards pedicel. gree calyx with 3 sepals and three, oval-shaped petals, with dark green veining, gathered inwards around 3 styles with featheres filaments protruding horizontally and 6 light brown stamen, with anthers gathered at centre. The 'Sepale' is hinged to allow removal of a petal.

Dimensions

Height

430 mm

Width

200 mm

Depth

150 mm

Production

Notes

Louis Thomas Jerome AUZOUX (1797-1880) Born in Normandy, Louis Auzoux obtained a medical degree in 1818 and was appointed to the surgical department of the Hotel-Dieu, with celebrated Dupuytren, the 'Napoleon of surgery.'

The shortage of anatomical teaching materials prompted Auzoux, a year later, to begin experimenting with making models. . Models in wax were available but were very expensive. In contrast, papier mache was comparatively inexpensive, stable and able to be easily moulded. Furthermore, it was strong enough to allow each model to be taken apart to show the arrangement of organs, 's'enlever une a une comme une veritable dissection'. Noting the techniques of Parisian doll and puppet makers, Auzoux developed a paper paste, which allowed papier-mache models to harden as a solid, supple, light and durable object. This improved upon the early papier-mache techniques of Francois Ameline. Auzoux created models, which could be taken to pieces and reassembled, with each part labelled, showing internal anatomy. He called these models Anatomie clastique and designed them for both lay and expert audiences.

In 1822 he presented a life-sized model of the human pelvis at the Academie Royale de Medicine, and from 1825 commissions from educational institutions flooded in - requesting human, botanical and veterinary models. Auzoux opened a small factory, in Saint Aubin d'Ecrosville, in 1828, soon employing 100 workers. In 1833, Auzoux established a shop in the rue du Poan in Paris. Over the next century and a half the range increased to some 600 models, the majority zoological and botanical with 100 relating to human anatomy. For many years the Auzoux family had a shop in the Rue du medecine in Paris. the shop finally closed in the 1990s and the contents were sold at auction on 22 October 1998.

The models are made with a grey paper pulp, containing granular particles and short fibres. Flax is added to the pulp for models of insect parts, veins and nerves. Auzoux used moulds made from plaster and, later, innovative antimony moulds for the solid parts of the models. Plaster coats the outside for strength and to provide a base for the paint. The paint is protein-based egg tempera and is protected by a layer of Russian fish glue for models made before 1917, and wood varnish for models made afterwards.

The system of labelling was another of Auzoux's innovations: Labels with pointing hands and numbers show where the parts of the model may be disassembled. Anatomical names of the different model parts form a second order in the hierarchy of the anatomy. A third order is the small round numbered labels appearing on some parts, the associated description of which appeared in the accompanying catalogue.

See B.W.J. Goob, 'The Anatomical Models of Dr Louis Auzoux' A Descriptive Catalogue (Leiden: Museum Boerhaave Communication 305, 2004)

History

Notes

This model was purchased from Dr Auzoux's workshop on 8 October 1885 as part of a larger collection of 'models in papier mache of ... familiar plants'. The year before museum had purchased models of silk worm moths, berries and 'ten models illustrating the natural order of plants'. All of these models were articulated so as to be able to be taken apart to demonstrate the 'internal economy' of the plant or flower. A newspaper account survives of one of these models -- the silkworm -- being demonstrated to the Royal Society by the Museum's curator and in the original aims for the museum regular Wednesday afternoon demonstrations by the curator were a key feature. However, overcrowding at the Agricultural Hall was blamed for their cessation and the 1893 building did not make any special provision for demonstrations by providing, for example, a teaching or demonstration room. Purchased from Dr Auzoux 08/10/1885. See Annual Report, purchases 1885, 'Models in papier mache of the following familiar plants'. Purchased from catalogue and price lists similar to REC11513/1 Acquired 2005/213/1, Dr Auzoux, France, 1920, see description page 51

Source

Credit Line

Purchased 1885

Acquisition Date

8 October 1885

Cite this Object

Harvard

Model of Dock flower 2019, Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, accessed 20 September 2019, <https://ma.as/110>

Wikipedia

{{cite web |url=https://ma.as/110 |title=Model of Dock flower |author=Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences |access-date=20 September 2019 |publisher=Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, Australia}}

Incomplete

This object record is currently incomplete. Other information may exist in a non-digital form. The Museum continues to update and add new research to collection records.

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