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10083 Botanical model, Chrysanthemum coronarium (Comositae), paper mache / metal / [hair], made by Dr Auzoux, Paris, France, c. 1880. Click to enlarge.

Model of Chrysanthemum flower

Made by Auzoux, Louis in Paris, France, c. 1880.

Model of a Crown Daisy. The model is of a white flower with a yellow centre and a green stem. It opens to show a cross section of the inside of the plant and has a detachable petal.

16 petals, white, 190mm long, 70 mm wide. Each petal with two depressions from centre to three tips. Centre of flower is yellow with black detailing, and fading to darker orange at edge. Base of each petal support fork-shaped yellow anther. Each anther is supported by star-shaped orange piece. Articulated. Metal hoo...

Summary

Object No.

10083

Object Statement

Botanical model, Chrysanthemum coronarium (Comositae), paper mache / metal / [hair], made by Dr Auzoux, Paris, France, c. 1880

Physical Description

Model of a Crown Daisy. The model is of a white flower with a yellow centre and a green stem. It opens to show a cross section of the inside of the plant and has a detachable petal.

16 petals, white, 190mm long, 70 mm wide. Each petal with two depressions from centre to three tips. Centre of flower is yellow with black detailing, and fading to darker orange at edge. Base of each petal support fork-shaped yellow anther. Each anther is supported by star-shaped orange piece. Articulated. Metal hook on one side of calyx. Calyx is green with slightly raised sepals moulded and outlined in white. Green stem supportted by unaupported metal pin.

Dimensions

Height

380 mm

Width

520 mm

Production

Notes

The model was made by Dr Auzoux, a French anatomic model maker (b. 1797 - d. 1880). He began creating anatomical models after he found it difficult to study anatomy as the human cavaders he was dissecting deteriorated rapidly and wax models were not readily available. In 1827 he opened a factory to manufacture human, veterinary and botanical models.
(see http://americanhistory.si.edu/anatomy/history/nma03_history_before1.html)
The model was made in Paris c. 1880.

Louis Thomas Jerome AUZOUX (1797-1880) Born in Normandy, Louis Auzoux obtained a medical degree in 1818 and was appointed to the surgical department of the Hotel-Dieu, with celebrated Dupuytren, the 'Napoleon of surgery.'

The shortage of anatomical teaching materials prompted Auzoux, a year later, to begin experimenting with making models. . Models in wax were available but were very expensive. In contrast, papier mache was comparatively inexpensive, stable and able to be easily moulded. Furthermore, it was strong enough to allow each model to be taken apart to show the arrangement of organs, 's'enlever une a une comme une veritable dissection'. Noting the techniques of Parisian doll and puppet makers, Auzoux developed a paper paste, which allowed papier-mache models to harden as a solid, supple, light and durable object. This improved upon the early papier-mache techniques of Francois Ameline. Auzoux created models, which could be taken to pieces and reassembled, with each part labelled, showing internal anatomy. He called these models Anatomie clastique and designed them for both lay and expert audiences.

In 1822 he presented a life-sized model of the human pelvis at the Academie Royale de Medicine, and from 1825 commissions from educational institutions flooded in - requesting human, botanical and veterinary models. Auzoux opened a small factory, in Saint Aubin d'Ecrosville, in 1828, soon employing 100 workers. In 1833, Auzoux established a shop in the rue du Poan in Paris. Over the next century and a half the range increased to some 600 models, the majority zoological and botanical with 100 relating to human anatomy. For many years the Auzoux family had a shop in the Rue du medecine in Paris. the shop finally closed in the 1990s and the contents were sold at auction on 22 October 1998.

The models are made with a grey paper pulp, containing granular particles and short fibres. Flax is added to the pulp for models of insect parts, veins and nerves. Auzoux used moulds made from plaster and, later, innovative antimony moulds for the solid parts of the models. Plaster coats the outside for strength and to provide a base for the paint. The paint is protein-based egg tempera and is protected by a layer of Russian fish glue for models made before 1917, and wood varnish for models made afterwards.

The system of labelling was another of Auzoux's innovations: Labels with pointing hands and numbers show where the parts of the model may be disassembled. Anatomical names of the different model parts form a second order in the hierarchy of the anatomy. A third order is the small round numbered labels appearing on some parts, the associated description of which appeared in the accompanying catalogue.

See B.W.J. Goob, 'The Anatomical Models of Dr Louis Auzoux' A Descriptive Catalogue (Leiden: Museum Boerhaave Communication 305, 2004)

History

Notes

Dr Auzoux's factory in Paris produced many different animal models, including insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, wild and domestic mammals, and botanical specimens. His models were popular for use in teaching and museums developed exhibits comparing the differences between botanical models, human and veterinary structures.
(see http://americanhistory.si.edu/anatomy/history).

Purchased from Dr Auzoux 08/10/1885. See Annual Report, purchases 1885, 'Models in papier mache of the following familiar plants'. Purchased from catalogue and price lists similar to REC11513/1 Acquired 2005/213/1, Dr Auzoux, France, 1920. See description page 51: "Chrysantheme - Tige, Feuilles, faleurs avant et pendent la floraison, dont l'une peut etre divisee en deux masses et receptacle avec des graines mures."

Source

Credit Line

Purchased 1885

Acquisition Date

8 October 1885

Cite this Object

Harvard

Model of Chrysanthemum flower 2019, Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, accessed 22 September 2019, <https://ma.as/109>

Wikipedia

{{cite web |url=https://ma.as/109 |title=Model of Chrysanthemum flower |author=Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences |access-date=22 September 2019 |publisher=Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, Australia}}

Incomplete

This object record is currently incomplete. Other information may exist in a non-digital form. The Museum continues to update and add new research to collection records.

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